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   2021| January-March  | Volume 9 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 20, 2021

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of primary school teachers of Tehran, Iran
Roya Khalili Shojaei, Mahmood Ghasemi
January-March 2021, 9(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_44_20  
Introduction: Schools are the valuable place for promotion of oral health, and primary school teachers have a unique position to influence oral hygiene practices in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary school teachers of Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 195 primary school teachers of Tehran, Iran. The multiple-choice questionnaire regarding dental disease prevention is comprised of ten questions on knowledge, seven on practice, and five on attitude. Distribution of individuals in terms of variables was expressed as numbers and percentages, and a logistic regression test was used to investigate the relationship between variables. Results: 61.6% of the primary school teachers in Tehran had good knowledge on oral health, but their attitude, especially about their role in teaching oral health, is very unfavorable. Teachers with higher education and participation in continuing educational courses had a positive effect on their performance. Conclusion: All teachers should be trained at regular intervals, given the importance of oral health and raising awareness about improving oral health for their students.
  1,147 100 -
Macroscopic and microscopic assessment of gastroprotective effects of methanolic leaf extracts of Cissampelos owariensis (P. Beauv.) in rats using pyloric ligation method
Dayo Rotimi Omotoso, Olayinka Simbiat Lawal, Oluwasegun Davis Olatomide, Itohan Grace Okojie
January-March 2021, 9(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_17_19  
Background: Cissampelos owariensis is a tropical medicinal plant widely applied for diverse therapeutic uses such as treatment of circulatory, reproductive, and gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic leaf extracts of C. owariensis against prolonged exposure to acidic gastric acid was assessed in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This study involved 25 male Wistar rats (180–200 g) divided into five groups (n = 5): Group A–E. Groups A and B were used as normal and test controls given distilled water, whereas Groups C–E were, respectively, administered with methanolic extracts of C. owariensis at dosage of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg, respectively. The mode of administration was oral, and the study period was 21 days. Afterward, gastric mucosal injury was induced in Groups B–E animals through pyloric ligation method. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of gastric tissues were done to ascertain the degrees of gastric mucosal protection or erosion using gross photographic and histological staining techniques. Results: The gross appearance of internal aspect of gastric tissues showed mildly eroded mucosal surface in treated Groups B–D, but intense erosion was observed in test control Group D. Similarly, for histological results, the treated Groups B–D showed moderate-to-mild mucosal surface erosion compared to intense erosion observed in test control Group E. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicated that prior treatment with methanolic extracts of C. owariensis resulted in gastric mucosal protection in experimental animals exposed to offensive factor such as gastric acid. This gastroprotective activity of methanolic extracts of C. owariensis may be associated with the antioxidant properties of the constituent phytochemical compounds.
  1,144 66 -
Prevalence and predictors of disarticulation resection of the mandibles in a Nigerian subpopulation
Ekaniyere Benlance Edetanlen, Birch Dauda Saheeb
January-March 2021, 9(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_40_20  
Background: Few studies are reported in the literature about the prevalence of disarticulation resection of the mandible, but little is known about the risk factors. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of disarticulation resection of the mandible. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study design for patients that had surgical resections of the mandible from January 2010 to July 2020 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Collected data from the patients' case-notes were age, gender, level of education, place of residence, occupation, employment status, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, type of lesion, and type of resection performed. In the univariate analysis, the Chi-square test was used for analysis, while the binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. All statistics were performed with SPSS version 21 (IBM Corps, Armonk, New York, USA). A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total number of 189 patients who presented for mandibular resections ranged in age from 13 to 75 years with a mean age of 41.4 ± 14.9 years. There were more males (63.5%) than females (36.5%) with M: F ratio of 1.7:1. More than half of the patients had disarticulation resection of the mandible, giving a prevalence of 64.0%. Alcohol consumption (P = 0.01) and the type of lesion (P = 0.00) were significantly associated with the prevalence of disarticulation resection of the mandibles. Only the type of lesion added to the predictive power of the risk factors (P = 0.03). The odontogenic keratocyst was 0.12 more likely to result in disarticulation resection of mandible than solid ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The prevalence of disarticulation resection of the mandible was 64.0%. The type of lesion in the mandible was a significant risk factor of the high prevalence of its disarticulation resection.
  904 75 -
Effects of aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) on antioxidant status and hematological indices in the heart of cadmium-induced wistar rats
Silvanus Olu Innih, Nkeiruka Eluehike, Blessing Francis
January-March 2021, 9(1):17-24
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_32_20  
Background: In recent times, medicinal plants has been explored for their ameliorating effect on Cadmium induced organ toxicity in Wistar rats. Aims and Objectives: This study investigates the protective effects of aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) on cadmium-induced biochemical and histological alterations in heart of rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (A-F). Blood samples were collected from the animals after treatment with cadmium (10mg/kg body weight) and varying doses (150, 300, 600mg/kg B.W) of aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus for 60 days for evaluation of antioxidant status and hematological parameters. Sections of the heart and aorta were examined for histological alterations. Results: Treatment with extract of Cyperus esculentus resulted in a significant increase (P<0.05) in superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthathione peroxidase activities and a significant reduction in malondialdehyde level when compared to the untreated animals. However, the alterations observed in the hematological parameters were not improved on treatment with Cyperus esculentus. Conclusion: Treatment with medium (300mg/kg B.W) and high (600mg/kg B.W) of Cyperus esculentus reversed the histological alterations observed in the heart and aorta of the untreated animals. The study demonstrated that aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus can protect against oxidative stress resulting from cadmium toxicity.
  810 98 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Inflammatory cytokines induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy may alter fetal brain development predisposing the offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
January-March 2021, 9(1):58-60
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_45_20  
  699 31 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of soybeans (glycine max [l.] merill) seeds
V H. A. Enemor, Chinenye Enoch Oguazu, CO Okpalagu, SC Okafor
January-March 2021, 9(1):25-31
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_16_20  
Introduction: Soybean is widely grown for its edible bean. It is a legume that grows in the tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates of Nigeria. It has been shown to contain a number of antioxidants that are used in preventing and treating chronic diseases. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of soybean seed using the following assays: DPPH (2,2 diphenyl-2-picryhydrazylhydrate) scavenging activity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity assay, inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity assay, reducing power capacity assay, and antioxidant enzyme assay, which include superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity assay. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of soybeans seed were determined spectrophotometrically using methods that include 2, 2-diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity assay, inhibition of lipid peroxidation assay, reducing power activity assay, peroxidation assay, and catalase and SOD activity assays. Results: The result of the DPPH scavenging activity revealed that the soybean extract has an EC50 value of 1053.542 μg/ml, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity with an EC50 of 420.1852 μg/ml, and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of soybeans extract had an IC50 of 1168.771 μg/ml. The reducing power activity of the soybeans extract had an OD0.5 of 484U/mg, catalase activity of 0.12985 U/mg, and SOD activity of 0.004125 U/mg. The EC50/IC50/OD0.5 obtained for the standard butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) was lower than those of the soybeans extract. Conclusions: The use of soybean as a source of natural antioxidants should be promoted since soybean component can inhibit lipid peroxidation and protect the human body from the oxidative damages by free radicals. Hence, the dietary intake of soybean can be linked to prevention and management of certain diseases.
  626 61 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Prevalence of overweight and obesity among health-care workers in Ghana: A systematic review
Murtala Bello Abubakar, Yaaqub Abiodun Uthman, Kasimu Ghandi Ibrahim
January-March 2021, 9(1):47-53
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_39_20  
Background: Obesity and overweight are among the major problems faced by the health sector with their prevalence increasing at an alarming rate and health-care professionals play a major role in mitigating these conditions. We, therefore, sought to identify and discuss available epidemiological data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among health workers in Ghana. Methods: We retrieve articles available in PubMed/Medline, African Journal Online, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The keywords combination used to search the databases were (((overweight) AND (obesity)) AND (healthcare workers)) AND (Ghana) and (((overweight) OR (obesity)) AND (healthcare workers)) AND (Ghana) and (((overweight) AND (obesity)) AND (health workers)) AND (Ghana) without the restriction of date or type of articles. Four studies were eligible and were used to systematically review the prevalence of overweight and obesity among health-care workers in Ghana. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among health-care workers in Ghana ranged from 25.3% to 38.39% and 12.5% to 28.9%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among health workers in Ghana. Thus, it is imperative to create more awareness of the imminent dangers posed by these conditions and promote a healthy lifestyle through regular exercise regimens and dietary choices.
  520 68 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of combining core muscle activation with treadmill walk on endurance of trunk muscles: A pilot study
Olajide Olubanji Olowe, Ganiyu Oluwaleke Sokunbi, Udoka Chris A Okafor, Adewale Musibau Amusa
January-March 2021, 9(1):37-46
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_33_20  
Background: Abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for core muscle training, which if combined with treadmill walk (TW) could provide trunk muscle endurance Trunk muscle endurance, despite being observed as an important factor and a huge component of core spinal stability, especially in holding up the spine during prolonged functional activity, prevention and rehabilitation of lumbar mechanical problems and performance enhancer in sports, the impacts of combining core muscle activation with TW exercises on trunk muscle endurance has not be succinctly investigated. Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of combining abdominal bracing with TW on trunk muscles endurance. Materials and Methods: Eighteen apparently healthy young adults were randomized into three groups (TW without abdominal bracing, TW combined with abdominal bracing and control). McGill endurance test measures were carried out at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. All participants followed the assigned intervention protocols. Results: One way analysis of variance did not show a significant between-group difference in the postintervention endurance of trunk muscle among the three groups (P > 0.05). In the TW combined with the abdominal bracing group, paired-t test showed significant within-group difference in the form of an increase in the holding times (endurance) for the right lateral flexors (t = −3.758, P = 0.013), left lateral flexors (t = −4.096, P = 0.005), and extensors (t = −2.441, P = 0.050). Conclusion: Combining abdominal bracing with TW can be used to improve trunk muscle function through facilitation of trunk muscle endurance.
  476 58 -
Mycoplasma genitalium antibody among infertile women in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria
Hafsat Sagir Bakori, Abdulrazak Muhammad Idris, Abdulhadi Sale Kumurya
January-March 2021, 9(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_30_20  
Background: Infertility is an emerging health problem in many countries of the world including Nigeria. In many instances of asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic infection in women with infertility, it is difficult to find the etiological cause. Mycoplasma genitalium can be a cause of such asymptomatic infections and easily overlooked by clinicians. These bacteria can cause pelvic inflammatory disease leading to infertility. The seroprevalence of M. genitalium among infertile women will help in determining the extent of infection and define the medical attention it deserves. Objective: The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of M. genitalium among women with infertility in Kano metropolis. Materials and Methods: About 2 mL of blood samples was collected from 59 infertile women attending infertility clinics and 31 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (as controls) at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano. ELISA kit (Sunlog Biotech, M. genitalium) was used to detect the presence of M. genitalium antibody (MG-IgG). Results: Most of the participants in both groups found to have positive M. genitalium-IgG, with 50 (84.7%) among infertile women and 28 (90.3%) among fertile women. Among all the possible risk factors observed, only vaginal discharge was found to have a statistically significant relationship with the presence of M. genitalium-IgG (P = 0.0356). Conclusion: The study observed that M. genitalium has no significant association with infertility in Kano because the observed prevalence in the control group is a little bit higher than that of the study participants. The high prevalence of M. genitalium-IgG obtained among infertile and fertile women strongly suggests that they are not always associated with symptoms, thus supporting the need for screening among women of reproductive age.
  436 58 -
CASE SERIES
Herpes zoster-An indicator of a hidden COVID-19 infection-A case series
Irfan Altaf
January-March 2021, 9(1):54-57
DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_41_20  
Clinical presentation of COVID-19 infection can be variable in current pandemic even in patients presenting to the clinic with mild history of upper respiratory complaints. Various cutaneous manifestations have been noticed in COVID-19 patients with herpes zoster (HZ) being one among them. HZ is an infection that results that results when varicella-zoster virus reactivates from its latent state in a posterior dorsal root ganglion. Here, we aim to expand our knowledge by reporting three cases of associated zoster infection in COVID-19 patients admitted to our intensive care unit in view of respiratory complaints. All the three patients admitted had revealed lymphocytopenia at the time of HZ diagnosis and were managed conservatively throughout the course. In all the cases, acyclovir/valaciclovir led to the resolution of lesions in 10 days. No postherpetic sequelae were observed. We hereby suggest that the clinical presentation of HZ at the time of the current pandemic should be considered as an alarming sign for a latent subclinical SARS CoV2 infection and thorough follow-up of such patients be adopted.
  440 33 -
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