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   2019| July-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 2, 2020

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Physiotherapy management of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy: A narrative review
Musa Sani Danazumi
July-December 2019, 7(2):93-100
Introduction: Lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy (LDHR) has been one of the most difficult conditions to manage among low back disorders. Individuals with chronic or recurring lumbar radiculopathy experience difficulties returning to work due to poor lower limb neuromuscular control. Given the consequences of LDHR, there is the need for effective treatment approaches that will be helpful in the amelioration of the problem. Objectives: In this study the most recent physical therapy literature in the management of patients with LDHR was evaluated. Methods: A literature review was conducted from inception to January 2019 in the PubMed, PEDro, and OTseeker databases. Results: Fifteen studies relating to the physiotherapy managements of LDHR were identified and discussed. Out of these studies, 1 study was a cohort study and 14 studies were randomized controlled trials. 5 studies examined the effects of physical therapy modalities, 6 studes examined the effects of physical therapy/exercises and 4 studies examined the effects of spinal manipulation (SM) in the management of LDHR. Conclusion: The findings of this study concluded that extension-oriented treatment approach, SM and lumbar stabilization exercise in combination with low power laser therapy are better than any physiotherapy intervention in the management of LDHR.
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Physical activity as preventive therapy for older adults: A narrative review
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu, Abdalla Ali Deb, Shady Emara, Sami A Abbas
July-December 2019, 7(2):82-92
Sedentary behavior is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality; hence there is a need to promote physical activity (PA) among adults aged 60–86 years. The aim of this narrative review was to evaluate the role of PA in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases among older adults. Relevant studies (original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses) that reported on the effects of PA in older adults from 1998 to 2019 were selected. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, Sports Discus, Web of Science, and Cochrane database. Physical exercise at different intensities was shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of overweight, functional decline, and mood disorders in older adults. Moderate-to-high intensity endurance exercise can be effective in the prevention of diabetes type 2, hypertension, and cancer in older adults. Resistance training at different intensities was shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity in the elderly. Mobility and balance training were effective in preventing falls in older individuals. Combined exercise training regimen comprising moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and resistance exercise is beneficial in the prevention of disability, osteoporosis, hypertension, and falls among older adults. Moreover, combined exercise training improves immune function and antioxidant capacity in older adults. Based on the studies reviewed, PA was found to be an effective tool for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases among older adults.
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Influence of leisure-time physical activity constraints on physical activity participation of working-class individuals: A cross-sectional study
Mannir Kassim, Musa Sani Danazumi, Abdulsalam Mohammed Yakasai, Abdu Lawan, Usman Usman Zakari
July-December 2019, 7(2):63-70
Introduction: Constraints to leisure-time physical activity (PA) have been studied by many researchers all over the world. However, these studies were based on prevalence and were not able to determine the impact of these constraints among working-class individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the impact and influence of leisure-time PA constraints (LTPACs) on PA participation of working-class individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 401 participants was conducted. PA levels were measured using the International PA Questionnaire. LTPACs were measured using the Leisure Constraints Questionnaire. Binomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the constraint variables on PA. Results: The results indicated that 34.4% of the participants were sufficiently active and 65.6% of the participants were not physically active. The predictor constraints explained 68.1% of the variability in PA (Nagelkerke R2=0.681). The most significant predictors were lack of friends (odds ratio [OR] =8.360, confidence interval [CI] =6.671–10.468), lack of time due to work (OR = 8.313, CI = 6.633–10.419), lack of interest (OR = 2.190, CI = 1.161–4.121), lack of knowledge (OR = 1.360, CI = 1.049–1.764), and inadequate facilities (OR = 1.181, CI = 1.083–1.276). Conclusion: LTPACs were reported to be endemic among working-class individuals. These constraints need to be highly considered when health-care policies are being developed to ensure good health and longevity of workers.
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Translation and validation of the roland–morris disability questionnaire in hausa-speaking patients with low back pain
Musa Sani Danazumi, Shehu Usman Ibrahim, Rufai Yusuf Ahmad, Abdulsalam Mohammed Yakasai
July-December 2019, 7(2):76-81
Introduction: Measuring outcomes in the health-care system has been very well understood among health-care specialists for the past few decades and has been widely acknowledged by various authors. Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) is one of the most commonly used measures of disability in patients with low back pain (LBP) and has been translated and validated into many different languages around the world. However, Hausa version of the questionnaire is yet to be established. This study developed and assessed the validity of RMDQ in Hausa-speaking patients with LBP. Materials and Methods: Eligible participants (n = 375; age = 37.5; standard deviation = 7.48) with either acute or chronic LBP completed both the original version of the RMDQ (RMDQ-O) and the Hausa version of the RMDQ (RMDQ-H). In addition, other outcome measures including the Oswestry Disability Index and the Berg Balance Scale were also completed by the participants to enable equivalence of data. Pearson's product-moment correlation was used to establish the validity of the RMDQ-H. Results: The result of this study revealed that the concurrent validity of the RMDQ-H produced a significant value of 0.786 (n = 375; P= 0.001). The convergent validity and the divergent validity of the RMDQ-H were 0.692 (n = 375; P= 0.001) and 0.013 (n = 375; P= 0.671), respectively. Conclusion: The developed RMDQ-H is a valid outcome measure of disability among Hausa-speaking patients with LBP.
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Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis among patients with urinary tract infection at aminu kano teaching hospital
Abdulhadi Sale Kumurya, Abdulrazak Muhammad Idris, Maryam Muhammad Ali
July-December 2019, 7(2):71-75
Background: Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has become a serious issue for nosocomial infection control worldwide. The increase in antibiotic resistance among enterococci, specifically to vancomycin, has become a major clinical and epidemiological problem. Aim: The study aimed at the identification, phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus faecalis, and susceptibility pattern of vancomycin on E. faecalis associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) on patients admitted to the female medical ward and postnatal ward of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 urine samples were aseptically collected from patients suspected with UTI and cultured on blood agar and cystine–lactose–electrolyte-deficient agar and incubated under anaerobic and aerobic environment, respectively, at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial growth was subjected to standard methods for the identification of E. faecalis and tested for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns on vancomycin (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (10 μg), streptomycin (10 μg), chloramphenicol (30 μg), tetracycline (10 μg), and co-trimoxazole (25 μg) (Oxoid, UK) using disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of vancomycin were determined. ATCC E. faecalis 29,212 was used as control organism for every test run. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 8 (7.0%) E. faecalis were isolated from 114 samples studied. The prevalence of 50.0% and 25.0% VRE was obtained by disk diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. The result of antibiotics susceptibility pattern revealed that 6 (75.0%) of the E. faecalis isolates show multiple resistance to tetracycline (30 μg), co-trimoxazole (1.25/23.75 μg), and streptomycin (10 μg), but more sensitive to ciprofloxacin (5 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg). The MIC result revealed that vancomycin has high effect at lower concentration of 4 and 2 μg/ml and loses its effect at increase concentration of 8, 16, 32, and 64 μg/ml, and the result obtained from the MBC of vancomycin revealed that it has only a bacteriostatic effect against E. faecalis. Conclusion: Therefore, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol are the best therapeutic options to treat infection with VRE in Kano, and treatment with the resistant drugs obtained may affect feature treatment and management of infection with these drugs.
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