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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 65-135

Online since Thursday, February 11, 2021

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Incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of kura local government area, Kano, Nigeria p. 65
Husna El'yakub Jibril, Yusuf Mohammed, Abdulrazak Muhammad Idris, Abdulsalami Yayo Manu, Amina Abdullahi Umar, I Fatima Ismaila Tsiga- Ahmad
Background: Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) is a chronic parasitic disease characterized by the passage of bloody urine, granulomatous, and fibrotic changes in the wall of the urinary bladder. In Nigeria, little has been achieved in the control of schistosomiasis. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of Kura Local Government Area, Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 participants were selected using convenient sampling techniques based on the availability and consented participants. The participants' information was collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and in-depth interview guide. 10 ml of urine sample was collected from each participant in a clean sterile universal container. All samples were examined macroscopically at ×10 and confirmed at ×40 objective lens to determine the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the rice farmers within the study districts was 50.6%, with the highest incidence of 62.0% at Sarkin Kura district following by 59.6% and 32.4% at Tanawa and Dalili district, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained in the 10–19 years of age group. Male participants had the highest prevalence. On the bases of educational level, participants with a primary school level of educations had the highest prevalence. Conclusion: Based on the finding of this study, it was concluded that schistosomiasis is endemic in Kura Local Government.
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Effect of advancing maternal age on some histomorphological characteristics and other parameters of the offspring of wistar rats p. 71
Taiwo O Kusemiju, Oshiozokhai Eboetse Yama, OO Olabiyi, AA Aladejare, Timothy Danboyi, Anthony Donatus Teru Goj, Ohunene Makoju Avidime
Background: The average age of mothers at the time of first childbirth has been increasing over the past decades. Delayed motherhood comes with several adverse outcomes. Objective: We investigated the effect of advancing maternal age on some histomorphological parameters in the litters of female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven female rats (11–40 weeks old) were divided into three groups (young-, mid-, and old aged) of 9 rats each and mated with 12 male rats. The morphological parameters of the litters were obtained and a classic maze task was performed. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23 and values at P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The litters of young-age mothers were significantly fewer (5.0 ± 0.4) compared to litters of mid- (8.0 ± 0.3) and old-aged (11.6 ± 0.8) mothers. Sex ratio significantly increased as the maternal age increases. Litters of young-aged mothers committed more errors (3.4 ± 0.5) and took longer to complete the maze task (147.0 ± 24.9s) compared to litters of the other groups. However, the biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in the brain homogenate were worse with advancing maternal age. Histologically, there was a significant decrease in the external pyramidal layer width with advancing maternal age (8.18 ± 0.23 mm in young aged; 4.16 ± 0.09 mm in the old aged). Conclusion: Advancing maternal age has an enhancing effect on the litters' size, sex ratio, and cognitive abilities but a negative effect on OS and cortical width.
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Clinical evaluation and comparison of platelet-rich fibrin and injectable platelet-rich fibrin (sticky bone) in the treatment of intrabony defects p. 78
Eldrida Dsa, Anirban Chatterjee, Deepa N Shetty, AR Pradeep
Introduction: Periodontal regeneration aims to regenerate the lost periodontium, and platelet concentrates are frequently used in the medical fields to improve the healing and promote tissue regeneration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) (sticky bone) in comparison to platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 sites treated were divided into three groups (Group I – open flap debridement [OFD alone], Group II – OFD with i-PRF [sticky bone], and Group III – OFD with PRF) in moderate-to-severe periodontitis. The clinical parameters assessed were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level, and defect depth reduction at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Results: Nine months postoperatively, a significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters was observed from baseline in all three groups. However, Group II and Group III showed better results in all the parameters compared to Group I. Nine months postoperatively, the defect depth reduction was: OFD - 41.59%, i-PRF - 72.75%. and PRF - 62.11%. Conclusion: PC (i-PRF [sticky bone] and PRF) have shown better clinical and radiographic outcomes than OFD in the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis.
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Studies on In vitro antioxidant analysis of cucumeropsis mannii (melon) seed Highly accessed article p. 86
H A Enemor Victor, Chinenye Enoch Oguazu, Mbamalu C Linda
Introduction: Cucumeropsis mannii (melon seed) is grown as a source of oil and can be dried and ground for use as soup condiment in Nigeria. It has been said to contain antioxidants. The crop holds significant nutritional value rich in essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. The seed is an excellent vegetable protein and is ideal for battling nutritional debilitations. Aims: In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of melon seeds were analyzed. Materials and Methods: The C. mannii (melon) seeds were dried, and the sample was ground with a corona manual grinder into a fine powder and was stored in an airtight container. Sample extraction was performed by soaking 20 g of the ground sample in 100 ml of 70% ethanol and placed in a shaker (HY-4A multipurpose oscillator) for 1 h. Analysis for percentage of free radical scavenging activity (RSA), reducing power activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and antioxidant enzyme activity was done using standard methods. Statistical Analysis: The results were presented as mean ± standard deviation, and analysis was carried out using the Student's t-test at 95% confidence level considered at P = 0.05. Results: The result obtained showed that melon seed had an EC50 free RSA of 2382.69 mg/ml, reducing power activity of 16,660 mg/ml, while lipid peroxidation showed EC50 of 473.832 mg/ml. The catalase (0.12985 ± 0.00 U/mg), superoxide dismutase (0.0032095 ± 0.00U/mg), and H2O2 scavenging activity showed high activities. Conclusions: C. mannii (melon seed) contains active antioxidants that prove that it is of essential nutritional value.
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Assessment of health status during exposure to cigarette smoke using blood chemistry, lung tissue histology and myocardial metabolism p. 91
Chibuzor Stella Ukonu, FO Awobajo, AA Adejare, CN Anigbogu
Background and Objectives: Cardiorespiratory function is critical to well-being. The effect of cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) as a pollutant on human health is of great interest and requires an adequate investigation in order to reduce the burden of its complications. This study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on cardiovascular function and airway muscle functional anatomy using an experimental setup. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult male guinea pigs were grouped into four different groups and exposed to different concentrations of cigarette smoke. On the 12th week of exposure, blood pressure parameters were determined with the aid of a pressure transducer connected to a PowerLab data acquisition syste m. Vascular reactivity was also measured in relation to norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Myocardial oxygen demand (MOD) and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity were equally evaluated. Animals were sacrificed through cervical dislocation, and the lung and trachea were har vested for histological studies. Results: Cigarette smoke significantly decreased blood pressure and heart rate (HR), baroreceptor sensitivity, and MOD (P < 0.05). Furthermore, cigarette smoke significantly increased vascular reactivity to NE by increasing mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and HR (P < 0.05) but reduced vascular reactivity to graded doses of ACh and SNP by decreasing MABP (P > 0.05). Red blood cell and platelet concentration as well as sodium and calcium level in the blood were all increased at high dose of exposure. Conclusion: CSE resulted in alteration in histological architecture of the lungs and trachea. CSE decreased blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, MOD, and vascular reactivity response of MABP to ACh and SNP and increased HR and vascular reactivity response to NE. Furthermore, it also negatively altered the normal architecture of the lung and trachea.
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Effect of L-citrulline supplementation on blood glucose level and lipid profile in high-fat diet - and dexamethasone-induced type-2 diabetes in male wistar rats p. 100
Timothy Danboyi, Abdulwahab W Alhassan, Abdulazeez Jimoh, Evelyn Hassan-Danboyi
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders, afflicting over 415 million people worldwide. It has been associated with several complications mainly due to hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. L-Citrulline, a nonessential amino acid may be an efficient alternative therapy owing to its hypolipidemic and other beneficial effects which have not been extensively explored in type-2 DM (T2DM). Objective: We investigated the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on fasting blood glucose (FBG) level and lipid profile in high-fat-diet (HFD) and dexamethasone-induced T2DM in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, 10–12 weeks old, each weighing between 200 and 250 g were randomly assigned into six groups of five rats each. Group I was fed normal diet while diabetes was induced in the other groups with HFD and dexamethasone intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg) for 21 days. Group III which was confirmed diabetic, received metformin 100 mg/kg orally, and Groups IV, V, and VI which were also confirmed diabetic, received 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg L-citrulline, respectively, for 21 days. Serum FBG and lipid profile were obtained after humanely sacrificing the rats at the end of the treatment. Values at P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the treatment, L-citrulline significantly reduced the FBG levels in a dose-dependent manner to 192.5 ± 3.4 mg/dL, 181.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL, and 174.8 ± 2.8 mg/dL at 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The total cholesterol level was significantly lowered by L-citrulline 200 mg/kg (55.2 ± 0.64 mg/dL), 400 mg/kg (57.8 ± 1.19 mg/dL), and 800 mg/kg (63.1 ± 1.50 mg/dL) compared to the diabetic control (149.8 ± 2.68 mg/dL). Similar findings were obtained for the low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels. There were also significant elevations in the high-density lipoprotein levels by L-citrulline at all doses compared to diabetic control (24.6 ± 1.1 mg/dL). Conclusion: L-Citrulline supplementation possesses antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects in diabetic Wistar rats.
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Maternal prolactin level and body weight of offspring following administration of ethanolic fruit extract of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) during lactation p. 108
NN Njoku-Oji, TS Udemezue, NO Ifegwu
Objective: This research was carried out to evaluate the maternal prolactin (PRL) level and body weight of offspring of rats administered ethanolic fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera during lactation. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty female Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 200 g were used. They were distributed randomly to four groups of five rats each. The groups were labeled A–D. Group A served as the control group and received distilled water only, whereas Groups B–D received 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 21 days through oral route. On day 22, blood samples were collected from the animals through cardiac puncture under anesthesia, and the serum PRL level was determined. The weights of the litters were determined with an electronic weighing balance, at birth and at 7-day interval for 21 days. Results: No statistically significant change (P 0.05) in serum PRL level and body weight of the offspring was observed in Group B when compared with that of the control. However, test Groups C and D showed a statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in maternal serum PRL levels as well as body weight of the offspring when compared with that of the control. Conclusion: This study has shown that fruit extract of P. dactylifera L. increased PRL secretion as well as growth and development of the offspring.
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Clinical evaluation of autologous platelet-rich fibrin and perioglas® in treating periodontal intrabony defects p. 112
Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya, Anirban Chatterjee
Context: This study was conducted to compare autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with PerioGlas® in treating periodontal intrabony defects (IBDs) of variable number of walls, based on clinical and radiographic outcomes. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess which regenerative material, i.e., autologous PRF or PerioGlas®, has a broader range of applicability in treating periodontal IBDs. Settings and Design: This study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology of the Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. Methods: Sixty IBDs were provided nonsurgical periodontal treatment, i.e., scaling and root planing, followed by oral hygiene instructions. When performing periodontal surgery, the IBDs were assigned to the Control group (i.e., access flap alone), test Group I (i.e., access flap + (PerioGlas®), and test Group II (i.e., access flap + autologous PRF). The vertical bone defects in three groups consisted of 3-, 2-, and 1-wall intrabony periodontal defects. Radiographic assessments were performed at baseline and 6 and 9 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was based on the mean values, standard deviation, and P values. Results: Mean defect depth fill compared to baseline and 9 months postoperatively for: (1) 3-wall IBDs: Control group was 6.50 ± 1.56 mm, test Group I was 9.27 ± 1.62 mm, and test Group II was 10.45 ± 2.33 mm, (2) 2-wall IBDs: Control group was 6.08 ± 0.62 mm, test Group I was 8.21 ± 1.58 mm, and test Group II was 8.96 ± 1.85 mm, and (3) 1-wall IBDs: Control group was 5.78 ± 1.07 mm and test Group II was 8.00 ± 0.69 mm. Conclusion: Autologous PRF has a wider applicability in case of various types of IBDs as compared to PerioGlas® owing to its mechanism of action and composition which is the presence of various growth factors and cytokines.
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Short-term aerobic exercise improves clinical and metabolic parameters in male type 2 diabetic patients p. 119
Isyaku Gwarzo Mukhtar, Yunusa Mako Mohammed, Mohamed Mabrouk Elkhashab, Salisu Ahmed Ibrahim
Background: Exercise has been reported to improve glycemic and lipidemic control in type 2 diabetes. However, there is no consensus on the type and duration of exercise that is necessary for glycemic and lipidemic control. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on clinical and metabolic parameters in male type 2 diabetic patients in Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Forty-six male participants (23 type 2 diabetics and 23 non-diabetics) were recruited using systematic random sampling. Baseline clinical and metabolic parameters (blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbAic), total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c]) were measured using standard protocols. All the participants underwent 6 sessions of aerobic exercise made up of 3 sessions per week for 2 consecutive weeks using an Orbitrac cycle ergometer. All measurements were repeated at the end of the 2 weeks exercise period. The data were analyzed on IBM SPSS version 23.0. Paired t-test was used to compare mean values of preexercise and postexercise parameters and P = 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the diabetic and nondiabetic participants was 42 ± 11.84 and 30 ± 3.45 years, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, FBG, HbAic, weight, and BMI were significantly reduced after exercise. Similarly, serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced. However, serum triglyceride and HDL-c were significantly increased after exercise. Conclusion: Short-term aerobic exercise improved clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 male diabetics.
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Awareness of health hazards and use of personal protective equipment among fuel pump attendants in Benin City, Nigeria p. 128
Mathias Abiodun Emokpae, Fidelis O Oyakhire, Jenissi Jesudumi Kolawole
Background: Petroleum products contain various volatile and organic compounds which have serious health implications on humans. Awareness of health hazards associated with petroleum product exposure by workers in petrol stations will enable these workers to have appropriate information regarding the risks of their occupation. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of health hazards and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by fuel pump attendants in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Exactly 90 participants (66 males and 24 females, age range 18–46 years) were evaluated. The health hazard awareness was assessed by the use of investigator-administered questionnaires. The questionnaire was open ended and divided into sections such as sociodemography and lifestyle, knowledge of health hazards and PPE, use of PPE, and duration of exposure. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and odds ratio (OR) was used to correlate the likelihood of association between variables. Results: Some 95.6% of respondents were aware of at least one type of PPE, 24.4% were aware of the health hazards of petroleum products, and only 18.8% actually use a type of PPE. The awareness of health hazards and use of PPE correlated positively with educational status (OR: 5.123, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8–20.18; OR: 40.2, 95% CI: 18.25–273.111) and duration of employment (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.96–18.20; OR: 4.00, 95% CI: 1.60–15.81), respectively. The observance of safety measures by these workers is paramount since there is no safe limit of exposure to some of the components of hydrocarbon. Enforcement of the use of PPE and the promotion of strategies to minimize exposure of workers is imperative.
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Potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the loss of smell and taste symptoms of COVID-19 p. 134
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
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