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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 91-99

Assessment of health status during exposure to cigarette smoke using blood chemistry, lung tissue histology and myocardial metabolism

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Chibuzor Stella Ukonu
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lago
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_22_20

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Background and Objectives: Cardiorespiratory function is critical to well-being. The effect of cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) as a pollutant on human health is of great interest and requires an adequate investigation in order to reduce the burden of its complications. This study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on cardiovascular function and airway muscle functional anatomy using an experimental setup. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult male guinea pigs were grouped into four different groups and exposed to different concentrations of cigarette smoke. On the 12th week of exposure, blood pressure parameters were determined with the aid of a pressure transducer connected to a PowerLab data acquisition syste m. Vascular reactivity was also measured in relation to norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Myocardial oxygen demand (MOD) and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity were equally evaluated. Animals were sacrificed through cervical dislocation, and the lung and trachea were har vested for histological studies. Results: Cigarette smoke significantly decreased blood pressure and heart rate (HR), baroreceptor sensitivity, and MOD (P < 0.05). Furthermore, cigarette smoke significantly increased vascular reactivity to NE by increasing mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and HR (P < 0.05) but reduced vascular reactivity to graded doses of ACh and SNP by decreasing MABP (P > 0.05). Red blood cell and platelet concentration as well as sodium and calcium level in the blood were all increased at high dose of exposure. Conclusion: CSE resulted in alteration in histological architecture of the lungs and trachea. CSE decreased blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, MOD, and vascular reactivity response of MABP to ACh and SNP and increased HR and vascular reactivity response to NE. Furthermore, it also negatively altered the normal architecture of the lung and trachea.

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