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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65-70

Incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of kura local government area, Kano, Nigeria


1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Science, College of Health Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Science, College of Health Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Date of Submission16-May-2020
Date of Decision04-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance08-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication11-Feb-2021

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Abdulrazak Muhammad Idris
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Science, College of Health Science, Bayero University, Kano
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_8_20

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  Abstract 


Background: Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) is a chronic parasitic disease characterized by the passage of bloody urine, granulomatous, and fibrotic changes in the wall of the urinary bladder. In Nigeria, little has been achieved in the control of schistosomiasis. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of Kura Local Government Area, Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 participants were selected using convenient sampling techniques based on the availability and consented participants. The participants' information was collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and in-depth interview guide. 10 ml of urine sample was collected from each participant in a clean sterile universal container. All samples were examined macroscopically at ×10 and confirmed at ×40 objective lens to determine the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the rice farmers within the study districts was 50.6%, with the highest incidence of 62.0% at Sarkin Kura district following by 59.6% and 32.4% at Tanawa and Dalili district, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained in the 10–19 years of age group. Male participants had the highest prevalence. On the bases of educational level, participants with a primary school level of educations had the highest prevalence. Conclusion: Based on the finding of this study, it was concluded that schistosomiasis is endemic in Kura Local Government.

Keywords: Rice farmers, Schistosoma haematobium, schistosomiasis, urine


How to cite this article:
Jibril HE, Mohammed Y, Idris AM, Manu AY, Umar AA, Tsiga- Ahmad I F. Incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of kura local government area, Kano, Nigeria. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2020;8:65-70

How to cite this URL:
Jibril HE, Mohammed Y, Idris AM, Manu AY, Umar AA, Tsiga- Ahmad I F. Incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of kura local government area, Kano, Nigeria. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 25];8:65-70. Available from: https://www.njecbonline.org/text.asp?2020/8/2/65/309173




  Introduction Top


Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) is a chronic parasitic infection caused by a species of Schistosoma haematobium members of the family trematode. The disease is characterized by the passage of blood in urine, granulomatous, and fibrotic changes in the wall of the urinary bladder.[1] An estimated population of over 243 million people have been affected by this disease worldwide. The disease occurs mostly in the tropical and subtropical African areas, especially in poor communities without access to safe drinking water, bathing with contaminated water, and inadequate sanitation.[2],[3]

The disease is spread by contact with infected water that contains the parasites. The parasites are released from freshwater snails that have been infected with the disease into the water body. The most commonly affected with the disease are school-aged children in developing countries as they are more likely to play in infected water. Other high-risk groups include farmers, fishermen, and people using infected water for their daily chores.[4]

In Nigeria, little has been achieved in the control of schistosomiasis. This is because the disease is mostly a rural occupational disease affecting those engaged in agriculture or fishing and residents in rural and periurban areas. Associated risk factors also include illiteracy, poor socioeconomic standard, poverty, poor hygiene, and inadequate public infrastructure.[5] The disease is reported to be endemic in some parts of Nigeria with the overall prevalence of 68.60% at Abarma village, Gussau, Zamfara State, Nigeria,[6] and 50.24% in Kura Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria.[7] The present study aimed to determine the incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in some selected villages of Kura Local Government Area, Kano, Nigeria.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study area

The study was carried out at the Kura Local Government Area in the Kano state of Nigeria. Kura Local Government Area is one of the 44 Local Government Areas of Kano State Nigeria located in the southern part of the state along the dual carriageway Zaria, Kano Road, at a distance of about 35 km from Kano, the State capital. It is located on longitude 80 25'49 E and latitude 110 46'17 N, which covers an area of about 206 km. 2006 census reported a human population of about 144,601.[8] Kura Local Government lies in the Sudan savanna vegetation belt and is the most extensively irrigated local government in the state due to the introduction of the irrigation system in the area. As an agricultural town, Kura is a town known for the production of foodstuffs and vegetable crops both during the rainy season and dry season. The dry season mostly starts from October to April, while the rainy season begins from April to September with an average annual rainfall of 134.4 mm. 80% of people in Kura Local Government are farmers who are engaged in mixed farming in both the seasons. Some of the crops produced in the area are rice, wheat, maize, millet, Guinea corn, beans, and tomatoes, of which rice is highly cultivated than other crops. Out of the total 10 districts in Kura, three were selected for this study, namely, Dalili, Sarkinkura, and Tanawa.

Study design

This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study and the participants were included using a convenient sampling technique among the study population.

Study population

The study population consisted of farmers of all age groups in the study area who have volunteered to participate in the study.

Ethical considerations

Ethical approval was obtained from the Kano State Ministry of Health and the ethical committee of the Kura Local Government Area before the commencement of the study with reference number MOH/OFF/797/T. I/1246. Informed consent was administrated to the Ward Head, District Head, and all participants.

Determination of the sample size

The sample size was determined using the following equation:[9]



28.0% was used as previous prevalence for schistosomiasis infection adopted from Daniel et al.,[10]

where,

n = Minimum sample size

z = Percentage point of standard normal distribution curve, which curve defines 95% confidence interval as 1.96 (constant)

P = Prevalence from previous study = 28.0%

q = 1 - p

d = Maximum sampling error allowed at 95% confidence limit that is 0.05

Therefore, z = 1.96

P = 28.0% = 0.28

q = 1 – p = 1–0.28 = 0.72



n = 309.00

n = 310

A total of 310 respondents were selected using convenient sampling techniques on the basis of the availability and consented participants.

Data collection

The instrument used for data collection was a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and in-depth interview guide. The structured interviewer-administered questionnaires consisted of three sections. The first section is dedicated to the participant biodata, the second section assesses the sociodemographic parameters of the respondents, and the third section is medical history of the respondents.

Urine collection

Following administration of the questionnaire, about 10 mL of urine sample was collected at 10:00 and 14:00 h of the day when the body's metabolic activity is relatively high.[11] A total 310 urine samples were collected from the consented rice farmers in three districts Dalili, Sarkin Kura, and Tanawa) in Kura Local Government of Kano State. The urine samples were collected in 20 mL clean and well-labeled specimen bottles from farmers following the collection of urine samples, 5 mL of 10% formal saline was added into the sample,[12] the samples were then placed in a cold box containing ice, and transported to the laboratory for laboratory analysis.

Urine processing

The volume of each urine specimen was measured and color was noted for any macroscopic examination. The samples were allowed to stand for about 30 min for the S. haematobium ova to settle at the bottom of the container. The urine was decanted slowly and carefully until there was only about 10 ml of it in the container, the residue was then be centrifuged at 1000 revolution per minute for 2 min.[12] The supernatant was decanted and transferred the sediment to slide, covers with coverslips and observed under microscope used × 10 objective lens and confirmed with × 40 of objective lens for the presence of S. haematobium eggs as described by CDC.[13]


  Results Top


An overall prevalence of 50.6% (157/310) urinary schistosomiasis was obtained, the highest prevalence of 62.0% (62/100) was at Sarkin Kura district following by 59.6% (59/99) at Tanawa district and least 32.4% (36/111) was at Dalili district. Age groups 10–19 years had a higher prevalence with 74.7% (59/79), following by 64.1% (75/117) and 32.1% (18/56) among age groups of 20–29 years and 30–39 years, respectively. Participants have a primary school level of education that has the highest prevalence of 54.2% (52/96) and at least 39.7% (25/63) was observed at those with a tertiary level of education. The majority of the participants (53.5%; 138/258) were male. Statistically, all the demographical variables showed a significant relationship with the occurrence of the infection except at the level of education that has P > 0.05 [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of the demographic variables

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[Table 2] shows the comparison between water source, some clinical conditions, and presence of schistosomiasis infection among the study participants. Most of the (53.5%; 92/172) participants had schistosomiasis infection who used well water for their domestics use, following by 48.1% (62/129) used tap water and least 33.3% (3/9) was observed among participants used stream water. Eighty-two (43.2%) participants showed the evidence of microhematuria and 41 (97.6) had presented with a history of macrohematuria in their urine. Statistically, there was a significant relationship between the presence of schistosomiasis infections and the presence of the observed clinical conditions expect possible risk factors (i.e., water for domestics used) with P < 0.05.
Table 2: Comparison between possible risk, diseases condition, and present of infection

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  Discussion Top


Schistosomiasis remains one of the public health problems in many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, little has been achieved in the control of schistosomiasis; this is because the disease is mostly a rural occupational disease affecting those engaged in agriculture or fishing and residents in rural and periurban areas.[14] The overall prevalence obtained in this study (50.6%) revealed a high prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers in Kura. This suggests that rice farming can expose farmers to high risk and high morbidity burden of urinary schistosomiasis. Thus, rice fields present a very ideal epidemiologic setting for the inhabiting and transmission of urinary schistosomiasis; especially with the presence of favorable environment for the colonization by snail intermediate hosts, like presence of water bodies that favor the cultivation of rice by farmers, human contact with cercariae infested waters, often for long hours, while engaged in rice farming activities and infected rice farmers that urinate egg laden urine to continuously pollute aquatic environments in rice fields. This scenario will remain unabated for continued disease transmission unless and until a deliberate disease awareness and therapeutic interventions are put in place to stem the negative tide. Rice farming occupations and humans engaged in a farming occupation in some parts of Nigeria, especially the northern part, are high-risk occupation groups for contracting urinary schistosomiasis due to their exposure to infested rice fields that harbor infective snail species.

The prevalence of schistosomiasis recorded in this study is similar to that of 50.24% recently reported by Aisha,[7] in the same Kura Local Government Area. The prevalence recorded in this study is, however, lower than 61.0% that reported by Oguike,[15] among rice farmers in Khachia and 68.6% by Bala et al.,[6] in Abarma village Gussau. Therefore, rice fields became an ideal epidemiologic setting for the acquisition and transmission of schistosomiasis, especially with the presence of favorable environmental conditions that support the survival of snail intermediate hosts, presence of water bodies that favor the cultivation of rice by farmers, contact of humans with infected water that contained infected cercariae while farming, and those farmers that urinate to continuously pollute aquatic environments in rice fields. The incidence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers varied among the three districts, the inhabitant of Sarkin Kura is more infected (62.0%), followed by those in Tanawa (50.6%); the least 32.4% was observed in Dalili; this could be due to differences in exposure risks to disease determinants within the districts.

The results of the age prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among rice farmers showed that young farmers of age group of 10–19 years had a higher prevalence rate of 74.7%, following by 64.1% at an age group of 20–29 years. This could be attributed to the increased water contact activities commonly associated with these age groups. It is plausible that farmers within this younger age group make water contacts through swimming activities and washing in streams in addition to the labor times spent with adults on infested rice fields. Kanwai et al.[16] and Bala et al.[6] made similar submissions in their studies.

The highest percentage (54.2%) of positivity was observed among participants who had primary school level of education, following by 53.0% among those with secondary school level of education and 39.7% with a tertiary level of education. This attributed to the level of awareness that can predispose the people to the infection.

The prevalence of the disease was also found to be higher among male farmers than in their female counterparts. The acquisition of urinary schistosomiasis was also positively associated with the male gender. The higher male prevalence could be due to sociocultural factors in the study area that tend to limit and/or reduce females from engagement in farming by restriction of women to mainly household chores. Men are thus more involved and engaged in rice farming with the attendant higher exposure risk to epidemiologic conditions for the acquisition of schistosomiasis in rice fields. The result of this study agrees with the report of Okon et al.,[17] which reported the higher schistosomiasis prevalence in males than in their female counterparts in their studies in the neighboring Kaduna. However, it disagreed with what result by Aisha,[7] and Oguike,[15] in their studies that reported the female subject have higher prevalence due to the facts that female are more engaged in rice farming than male in his study areas.

Our analysis of the presence of blood in urine, history of hematuria, and presence of infection revealed a significant relationship between the prevalence of infection. This indicated that the previous history of hematuria and the current presence of bloody urine is an indicator of urinary schistosomiasis. The result of this study is inline with the result of Bolaji et al.[18] in their study done among school children at Ajase Ipo, Kwara state, Nigeria, that reported the significant relationship between these two factors.

The present study revealed that, the relationship between source of water for domestics used and incidence of urinary schistosomiasis have no statistically significant relationship which concordant with the work done by Ndassi et al.[19] at southwest Cameroon, and discordant with the report of other researchers done at Kwara state done by Abdulkareem et al.[20] and Mohammed et al.[21]


  Conclusion Top


Based on the finding of this study, it was concluded that schistosomiasis is endemic in Kura local government. The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the rice farmers within the study districts was 50.6%; the highest prevalence was obtained in 10–19 years age group. Male participants have the highest prevalence. On the bases of educational level, participants with a primary school level of educations find to have the highest prevalence.

Recommendations

Efforts should be made to prevent transmission of schistosomiasis by adequately treating the infected rice farmers and control of the snail intermediate hosts in rice fields and health education should be intensified to create needed awareness on preventive measures among rice farmers.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Chidozie EU, Duniyan SY. Epidemiological survey of urinary schistosomiasis among children in selected schools: A preliminary study in Minna, Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:2773-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Mafe MA, Appelt B, Adewale B, Idowu ET, Akinwale OP, Adeneye AK, et al. Effectiveness of different approaches to mass delivery of praziquantel among school-aged children in rural communities in Nigeria. Acta Trop 2005;93:181-90.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Aisha SJ. Studies on Rice Fields Snails and Urinary Schistosomiasis among Rice Farmers in Kura Local Government Area, Kano state, Nigeria Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State; 2016. p. 107.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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National Population Commission (NPC) Nigeria National Census: Population Distribution by Sex, State, LGAs and Senatorial District: 2006 Census Priority Tables 2006:3. Available from: http://www.population.gov.ng/index.php/publication/140-popn-distri-by-sex-state-jgas-and-senatorial-distr-2006. [Last retrieved on 2019 Apr 15].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Oguike U. Malacological study of ricefield Agro-Ecosystem and urinary Schistosomiasis among rice farmers in Kachia Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State; 2015. p. 77.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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    Tables

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