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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 120-124

Association of proteinuria with fetal hemoglobin in adult sickle cell anemia


1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Hematology, Sickle Cell Clinic, Health Management Board, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mathias Abiodun Emokpae
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-0149.144853

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Background/Objectives: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a major public health problem and renal insufficiency is common in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients, but the presence of high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) may be protective against organ damage. This study correlates the levels of HbF with proteinuria and indices of iron status in adult SCD patients in a steady clinical state. Materials and Methods: HbF, serum iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), percentage transferrin saturation, urine protein, and full blood count were determined in adult SCD patients. Serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity were determined by spectrophotometric method. TIBC and percentage transferrin saturation were calculated from iron concentration and unsaturated iron binding capacity using the appropriate formula. Serum transferrin was calculated using the formula of the Miami Valley Burn Unit. Results: Out of the 97 subjects, 24 (25%) had mean HbF level of 8.48 ΁ 0.54% and none of them had proteinuria, while 28 (29%) who had mean HbF level of 3.00 ΁ 0.11% had proteinuria. The mean age of those who had proteinuria was higher (P < 0.001) than those without proteinuria. The mean HbF level of those with proteinuria was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than those without proteinuria. Significantly higher levels of serum iron and percentage transferrin saturation (P < 0.001) and significantly lower levels (P < 0.001) of TIBC and transferrin levels were observed in those without proteinuria compared to those with proteinuria. HbF negatively correlated (r = −0.315; P < 0.01) with proteinuria in adult SCD patients. HbF also correlated with indices of iron status in SCD patients with and without proteinuria. Conclusion: HbF correlated with proteinuria and indices of iron status in adult SCD patients in steady clinical state.


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