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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7-16

Factors associated with the dietary habits and nutritional status of undergraduate students in a private university in Southern Nigeria


1 Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University Okada, Benin City, Edo, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication13-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kingsley Omage
Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University Okada, Benin, Edo
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_1_19

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  Abstract 


Purpose: The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the factors associated with the dietary habits and nutritional status of undergraduate students in Igbinedion University, Okada. Methodology: A total of 800 undergraduate students who participated in the study were selected using a multistage sampling method. The study applied a cross-sectional, descriptive study design, and data were collected using a pretested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package (version 22.0), and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean age of respondents was 23.5 ± 2.4 years, with the highest proportion of 41.0% within the 19–21 years age group. The proportion of respondents who snacked was significantly higher among those who had an average monthly allowance of ≥₦11,000 (440). A higher proportion of those who had one sibling (30.8%) and three siblings (62.7%) had a medium dietary diversity and high Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), respectively. The difference in DDS observed with increasing average monthly allowance was statistically significant. Over three-quarters of the fathers of the respondents (85.0%) and two-thirds of the respondents' mothers (74.5%) had tertiary level of education. All married respondents (100.0%) ate 3 main meals per day and a significantly higher proportion of single respondents (55.3%) ate <3 main meals per day. The proportion of overweight respondents was higher among those who were ≥28 years old 8 (22.2%) and 100 (83.3%) of those in the 16–18 years age group had a normal body mass index. Conclusion: The factors, which affect the dietary habits and nutritional status of undergraduate students of Igbinedion University, Okada, include age, sex, number of siblings, marital status, monthly allowance, and level of education of parents.

Keywords: Adolescence, associated factors, dietary habits, nutritional status, undergraduates


How to cite this article:
Omage K, Omuemu VO. Factors associated with the dietary habits and nutritional status of undergraduate students in a private university in Southern Nigeria. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2019;7:7-16

How to cite this URL:
Omage K, Omuemu VO. Factors associated with the dietary habits and nutritional status of undergraduate students in a private university in Southern Nigeria. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 12];7:7-16. Available from: http://www.njecbonline.org/text.asp?2019/7/1/7/266831




  Introduction Top


Malnutrition refers to either inadequate intake of nutrients due to lack of food, ignorance, sociocultural factors, and diseases among other causes, resulting in underweight and other nutrient deficiency diseases or intake of nutrients in excess of body requirements due to poor dietary habit, resulting in overweight and obesity. Food choices are often affected by many factors among the most important being nutrition knowledge and attitude toward nutrition. Quantitative and qualitative deficiency of foods has been shown to compromise the quality of health and wellness of the population of all ages.[1] Some psychological conditions such as extreme dieting, binge eating, and bringing up food on purpose can also lead to disordered eating habits. Stress and boredom often result in the compulsive eating of certain foods, called × bingeing.[2] This is more common among adolescents and affects more girls than boys. Furthermore, anxiety, worry, loneliness, and difficulty in managing family relationships are contributing factors that could lead to refusal to eat or excessive eating.[2]

University students (undergraduates) in any country make up a large proportion of the total population.[3] The undergraduates who are usually within the age range of 17–25 years, study in various universities across the country.[3] Many students are often unaware of the nutritional values of the foods they eat.[3] Some avoid certain foods because of personal dislike, social and cultural pressure, peer group influence, religion, etc., not knowing what those food items could contribute to the adequacy of their nutrient intake. A major problem facing by students today is lack of information on their nutritional requirements.[3] It has also been observed that most students lack adequate fund or divert their feeding allowance to other frivolities and so skip some meals.[4] These unhealthy habits often lead to undernourishment or overnourishment with the resultant increase in the susceptibility to avoidable diseases. It is well known that college students often have difficulties following healthy dietary habits [5] and are particularly prone to poor dietary habits.[6] Considering this background, it is important to pay special attention to dietary patterns of university students, especially undergraduates, and evaluate the factors that often predispose them to unhealthy dietary habits. Thus, this study was carried out to identify the factors associated with the dietary pattern and nutritional status of undergraduate students in Igbinedion University, Okada.


  Materials and Design Top


Study area

The study area, Igbinedion University, Okada, is located in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area (one of the 18 local government areas of the state) of Edo State, Nigeria. The state shares boundaries with three other states of the federation. It is bounded in the north and east by Kogi State, in the south by Delta State, and in the west by Ondo State. The headquarters of Ovia Northeast Local Government Area in Edo State is located in Okada town where Igbinedion University is located. It has an area of 2301 km² and a population of 153,849 at the 2006 census. All the students are accommodated in the University's hostels with facilities for cooking and canteens for those who prefer to eat out.

Study design

In this study, a cross-sectional, descriptive study design was applied.

Study population

The study population included undergraduate students of Igbinedion University, Okada. The undergraduate students attending the University who agreed to participate in the study and signed the consent form were included in the study. While the undergraduate students who were pregnant (for females), on any form of medication, acutely ill, or with known chronic diseases were excluded from the study.

Sample size determination

Sample size (n = 800) was determined using the Fischer formula (n = z2pq/d2)[7] as the population, from which the sample size was drawn was more than 3000.

Sampling method

The study applied a multistage sampling method. Stage 1 included the selection of four faculties, by simple random technique, from the seven available faculties in the school. In Stage 2, two departments each were selected from the selected faculties (giving a total of eight departments) by simple random sampling technique, while in Stage 3, 100 respondents (undergraduate students) were selected from each selected department. These were done using simple random sampling technique.

Method of data collection

Data were collected using a structured dietary pattern questionnaire. Information on sociodemographic characteristic, feeding habit, and dietary practices were obtained using self-administered questionnaires to respondents. Each questionnaire was coded with a unique number to represent each respondent. The questionnaire was used to collect the following information:

Sociodemographic characteristics

Information on age, sex, course of study, year of study, monthly allowance, parents' level of education, number of siblings, etc., were obtained from the students, and these provided background information of students recruited into the study.

Assessment of dietary practices

Data on the number of meals consumed daily and their patterns, snacking habits, source of meals taken while in school, alcohol intake, etc., were obtained from the respondents. The evaluation for the number of meals consumed in a day was based on recommendation by the World Health Organization.[8]

Anthropometric measurements

Anthropometric measurements were taken with the respondents wearing light clothes and no shoes. The body weights (kg) of the respondents were measured to the nearest 0.5 kg, while their height (m) was measured to the nearest 0.5 cm.[9]

Pretesting of questionnaires

The questionnaires were pretested by administering it to 10% of undergraduate students (80) in the University of Benin.

  • Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. It is classified into <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.99 (normal), 25.0–29.99 (overweight), 30.0–34.99 (obesity Class I), 35.0–39.99 (obesity Class II), and >40 (obesity Class III)
  • Food groups used in the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS): Twelve food groups were used for the DDS. The food groups were, namely, cereals, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, fish/seafood, legumes/nuts and seeds, milk and milk products, oils and fats, condiments, and soft drinks
  • DDS Classification: low DDS (≤3 food groups), medium DDS (4–5 food groups), and high DDS (≥6 food groups).


Occupational classification

The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) was used to group the occupation of the respondents' parents.[10]

  • Skill level 0: It includes students, pensioners, and unemployed respondents [10]
  • Skill level 1: Occupations involving the performance of simple and routine physical or manual tasks. Examples include office cleaners, garden laborers, and kitchen assistants [10]
  • Skill level 2: Occupations involving the performance of tasks such as operating machinery and electrical equipment, driving vehicles, maintenance and repair of electrical and mechanical equipment and manipulation, and ordering and storage of information. Examples include butchers, bus drivers, secretaries, police officers, account clerks, hairdressers, building electricians, and motor vehicle mechanics [10]
  • Skill level 3: Occupations involving the performance of complex technical and practical tasks that require an extensive body of factual, technical, and procedural knowledge in a specialized field. Examples include shop managers, medical laboratory technicians, legal secretaries and commercial sales representatives, diagnostic radiographers, and broadcasting and recording technicians [10]
  • Skill level 4: This involves the performance of tasks that require complex problem-solving, decision-making, and creativity based on an extensive body of theoretical and factual knowledge in a specialized field. Examples include sales and marketing managers, operation theater nurses, and computer system analysts.[10]


Method of data analysis

Data analysis was performed using the SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics version 20) statistical package. The data collected were also analyzed using simple description analysis such as percentages and frequency counts. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.005.

Ethical consideration

Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethics and Research Committee, University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Permission was obtained from the school management, and informed consent was obtained from the respondents.


  Results Top


Eight hundred undergraduate students (respondents), both male (n = 324; 40.5%) and female (n = 476; 59.5%), participated in the study. The mean age of respondents was 23.5 ± 2.4 years.

In [Table 1], 460 (57.5%) of the respondents had an average monthly income of ₦11,000 and above, and 680 (85.0%) fathers of respondents had tertiary level of education. Five hundred and ninety-six (74.5%) respondents' mothers had tertiary level of education and 20 (2.5%) had no formal education. Four hundred and four (50.5%) respondents' fathers, belonged to occupational skill level III and 380 (47.5%) of respondents' mothers as well.
Table 1: Socioeconomic characteristics of respondents and their parents (n=800)

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[Table 2] shows that, a higher proportion of respondents who were 28 years and above (66.7%) and in the 22–24 years age group (30.0%) had a high dietary diversity and low dietary diversity, respectively. The association between age group and dietary diversity was statistically significant (P < 0.001). More females (144 [30.8%]) had a low dietary diversity compared to males (68 [20.5%]). On the other hand, more males (172 [51.8%]) had a high dietary diversity compared to females (220 [47.0%]), and this finding was statistically significant (P = 0.004). All the respondents who were married (12 [100.0%]) had a high dietary diversity and 212 (26.9%) of those who were single had a low dietary diversity. The association between marital status and dietary diversity was statistically significant (P = 0.002). A higher proportion of those who had one sibling (30.8%) and three siblings (62.7%) had a medium dietary diversity and high dietary diversity, respectively, and this finding was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Dietary diversity was observed to increase with increasing monthly allowance. It was higher among those who had an average monthly income of ≥₦11,000 (54.8%) compared to those who had an average monthly income of ₦1000–₦5000 (42.4%) and ₦6000–₦10,000 (40.4%). This difference in dietary diversity observed with increasing average monthly allowance was statistically significant (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of those whose fathers had a tertiary level of education (180 [26.5%]) had a medium dietary diversity compared with respondents whose fathers had primary level of education (8 [100.0%]) with low dietary diversity. The association between the level of education of respondents' fathers and dietary diversity was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The proportion of respondents who had a low dietary diversity was highest among those whose mothers had no formal education 16 (80.0%) and lowest among those whose mothers had tertiary level of education 136 (22.8%), and this finding was statistically significant (P < 0.001).
Table 2: Sociodemographic characteristics and overall dietary diversity of respondents

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In [Table 3], the proportion of overweight respondents (22.2%) was higher among those who were ≥28 years old and (83.3%) of those in the 16–18 years age group had a normal BMI. Obese respondents were more among those in the 25–27 years age group (10.5%) compared to those in other age groups. The association between age group and BMI classification of respondents was statistically significant (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of females (15.4%) were overweight and obese compared to males (6.8%). Conversely, a higher proportion of males (73.5%) had normal BMI compared to the females 320 (68.4%), and this finding was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.305). More married respondents (33.3%) were overweight compared to the single respondents (13.7%), and more single respondents were normal weight (70.6%) compared to the married respondents (66.7%). The association between marital status and BMI classification was not statistically significant (P = 0.160). A higher proportion of those who had no sibling were overweight (50.0%), and a higher proportion of those who had two siblings (73.2%) were normal weight compared to other respondents. The association between number of siblings and BMI classification respondents was statistically significant (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of respondents who had an average monthly allowance of ≥₦11,000 (17.4%) were overweight and ₦1000–₦5000 (78.0%) normal weight, and this finding was statistically significant (P = 0.007). The proportion of respondents who were overweight (14.7%) and obese (7.1) was higher among those whose fathers had a tertiary level of education. This difference in BMI observed with increasing level of education of respondents' fathers was statistically significant (P = 0.005).
Table 3: Sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index classification of respondents

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In [Table 4], a higher proportion of respondents belonging to the 16–18 years age group (70.0%) ate <3 main meals per day and 25–27 years age group (63.2%) ate 3 main meals or more per day, respectively. The difference in the number of main meals eaten per day observed with different age groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). More females (276 [59.0%]) than males (160 [48.2%]) ate <3 main meals in a day, however, more males (172 [51.8%]) compared to the females (192 [41.0%]) ate 3 main meals or more per day. The association between sex of respondents and number of main meals eaten per day was statistically significant (P = 0.003). All married respondents (12 [100.0%]) ate 3 main meals per day and a higher proportion of single respondents (436 [55.3%]) ate <3 main meals per day, and this finding was statistically significant (P < 0.001). All respondents who had no sibling (100.0%) ate ≥3 main meals per day, however, 61.5% of those who had one sibling ate <3 main meals per day. The association between the number of siblings of respondents and the number of main meals eaten per day was statistically significant (P = 0.007). The proportion of respondents who ate <3 main meals per day was higher among those who had an average monthly allowance of ₦1000–₦5000 (57.6%), while the proportion of respondents who ate ≥3 main meals per day was higher among those who had an average monthly allowance of ≥₦6000–₦10000 (46.2%), and this finding was not statistically significant (P = 0.740). The number of main meals eaten per day was found to increase with increasing level of education of the respondents' fathers. All respondents whose fathers had no formal education (100.0%) and primary level of education ate <3 main meals per day, and a higher proportion of those whose fathers had tertiary level of education (48.8%) ate ≥3 main meals. This difference in the number of main meals eaten per day observed with increasing level of education of respondents' fathers was statistically significant (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of respondents whose mothers had tertiary level of education (49.0%) ate ≥3 main meals per day as compared with those whose mothers had no formal education. The association between the level of education of respondents' mothers and the number of main meals eaten per day was statistically significant (P < 0.001).
Table 4: Sociodemographic characteristics by number of main meals taken by respondents per day

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In [Table 5], a higher proportion of respondents in the 16–18 years age group (70.0%) skipped breakfast compared to other age groups, and this finding was statistically significant (P = 0.004). More females (280 [59.8%]) compared to males (168 [50.6%]) skipped breakfast. The association between sex of respondents and breakfast skipping was statistically significant (P = 0.010). The proportion of respondents (56.3%) who skipped breakfast was higher among those who were single compared to those who were married (33.3%). The association between marital status and breakfast skipping was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.111). Breakfast skipping was highest among those who had one sibling (84.6%) and lowest among those who had no sibling (50.0%), and this was statistically significant (P = 0.001). A higher proportion of respondents (58.3%) who earned an average monthly allowance of ≥₦11,000 skipped breakfasts compared to those (41.7%) who earned lower average monthly incomes. This finding was not statistically significant (P = 0.291). Breakfast skipping was found to decrease with increasing level of education of respondents' mothers, and it was highest among those whose mothers had no formal education 16 (80.0%) and lowest among those whose mothers had tertiary level of education 328 (55.0%). The association between the level of education of respondents' mother and breakfast skipping was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.141).
Table 5: Sociodemographic characteristics and breakfast skipping by respondents

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In [Table 6], all respondents in the 25–27 years age group (100.0%) ate snacks while a good proportion of respondents in the ≥28 years age group (88.9%) ate snacks. The association between age group and snacking status of respondents was statistically significant (P = 0.034). Slightly, more males (312 [94.0%]) than females (432 [92.3%]) ate snacks, and this finding was not statistically significant (P = 0.362). All married respondents (100.0%) ate snacks while 7.1% of single respondents did not eat snacks. The association between marital status and snacking was not statistically significant (P = 0.619). The proportion of respondents who snacked was found to decrease with increasing number of siblings. All respondents who had no siblings and one sibling, 8 (100.0%) and 52 (100.0%), respectively, snacked and 405 (91.8%) of respondents who had >3 siblings ate snacks. This difference in snacking status observed with increasing number of siblings was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.180). Snacking was found to increase with increasing average monthly allowance. The proportion of respondents who snacked was higher among those who had an average monthly allowance of ≥₦11,000 (95.7%), and this finding was statistically significant (P = 0.002).
Table 6: Sociodemographic characteristics and snacking status of respondents

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  Discussion Top


The science of nutrition includes the study of the environment and human behavior as it relates to the choice of food consumed by an individual. This is influenced by many factors which include personal preference, habit or tradition, social state (us) or pressure, availability, convenience, economy, and nutritional value. For example, an individual cannot eat a particular type of food if it is not available or affordable. Furthermore, excluding or including specific food in our diet or subscribing to the diet of a particular ethnic group does not guarantee adequate nutrition.

In this study, the factors affecting the dietary pattern and nutritional status of undergraduate students in Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria, were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. A factor which affects the dietary pattern and nutritional status of the respondents is age. The older the respondents, the more main meals they eat per day. This may have everything to do with better knowledge of the importance of good dietary practice and balanced nutrition. Furthermore, gender plays a major role in the dietary pattern of the respondents. The female respondents ate less number of main meals per day compared to the males. Avoidance of meals daily is a common occurrence among the females because of the fear of overweight and obesity. However, their eating habits (i.e., meal skipping, low dietary diversity, etc) predispose them to the same health problems which they are trying to avoid in the first place. The proportion of overweight respondent increased with age, with more of the females been overweight and obese, despite meal skipping and avoidance of certain food groups, compared to the males. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the females may result from excessive consumption of selected food groups, which are mostly energy dense or refined and avoidance of food groups with low energy and necessary vitamins and minerals.

The prevalence of breakfast skipping among those with siblings may have to do with the family resources not been able to go round within the family. The allowance which seems adequate means the respondents can afford good food with balanced nutrients, as poor funding could lead to unhealthy eating habit.[11] However, those with higher monthly allowance tend to skip breakfast more. This is similar to the findings by Sun et al. who conducted a cross-sectional survey among medical students in the Inner Mongolia Medical College.[12] The more money they get, the more they have to spend on frivolities, which may have adverse effects on their nutritional status. Maternal education and family income are important influences on the dietary pattern of adolescences.[9] It is evident that the levels of education of the respondents' parents play a key role in reducing the prevalence of breakfast skipping.

The prevalence of snacking was also found to decrease with increasing number of siblings and increase with increasing average monthly allowance. Increasing monthly allowance makes available money to purchase these snacks as they are readily available and convenient to eat. However, majority of the students who received more than ₦11,000 as monthly allowance seem satisfied with the amount they get. This is very important as a student cannot eat good food if there is no money to purchase it. Thus, to guarantee a good feeding habit, the financial resources must be available. The eating habits of the respondents also indicate that the unavailability (especially for foods that are seasonal) of some of the food may contribute to less frequency of intake, as a food cannot be eaten if it is not available. Apart from availability, convenience equally plays a major role in the choice of food. People tend to prefer some type of food if they are particularly convenient, easy, and fast to cook. The preference for particular types of food among undergraduate students has been reported.[3],[13] Most undergraduate students are often very busy with tight schedules, both academic and social. They have little or no time to prepare good meals, which often requires going to the market to purchase the food items and ingredients, as well as taking time to cook the food as required. Furthermore, an individual certainly cannot eat a particular type of food if he cannot afford it.

In a study, carried out in the United States, it was reported that university students consume a lot of fast food which is high in fat and low intake of fruits and vegetables.[14],[15],[16] This type of eating habits has also been observed among Nigerian undergraduates.[17] Although the undergraduate students in Nigeria tend to eat varieties of food (high dietary diversity), their dietary pattern shows less consumption of fruits and vegetables. The male respondents had higher DDSs than the females, just as the married respondents scored higher in dietary diversity than the single respondents. It is quite interesting from the findings that the males ate more food groups than the females. This may be due to the fact that males are less conscious of their appearance or body weight compared to females; as a result, they tend to eat any food that is available or appealing. Females, on the other hand, are more selective in their choice of food and consequently avoid certain food. Dietary diversity, which was found to increase with increasing monthly allowance, is closely linked with affordability. The availability of money means that the respondent can afford good food or diverse food groups with balanced nutrients. Thus, higher frequency of consumption of roots and tubers, cereals, oils, and fats, which formed their eating habits, may be related to cost and availability.


  Conclusion Top


The factors, which affect the dietary pattern and nutritional status of undergraduate students of Igbinedion University, Okada, include age, sex, number of siblings, marital status, monthly allowance, and level of education of parents, as well as cost and availability.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Biochemistry, Igbinedion University, Okada (Edo State, Nigeria), for providing the necessary research facilities.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Swaminathan M. Nutrition in the third millennium, countries in transition. In: Elmadfa, I, Anklam E, Konig J, editors. Modern Aspects of Nutrition: Present Knowledge and Future Perspectives. Basel, Freiburg, Paris, London, New York, Bangalore, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo and Sidney: Kasger Medical and Scientific Publisher; 1986. p. 22-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report on WHO Consultation. Technical Report Series No. 894. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. New York: Wiley; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Glore SR, Walker C, Chandler A. Brief communication: Dietary habits of first-year medical students as determined by computer software analysis of three-day food records. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:517-20.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Papadaki A, Hondros G, Scott AJ, Kapsokefalou M. Eating habits of university students living at, or away from home in Greece. Appetite 2007;49:169-76.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Fisher AA, Laing JE, Stoeckel JE, Townsend JW. Handbook for Family Planning Operations. Research Design. 2nd ed. New York, USA: Population Council; 1991. p. 43.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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FAO/WHO. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 916. Geneva: FAO/WHO; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Ambrosini GL, Oddy WH, Robinson M, O'Sullivan TA, Hands BP, de Klerk NH, et al. Adolescent dietary patterns are associated with lifestyle and family psycho-social factors. Public Health Nutr 2009;12:1807-15.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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International Labour Office. International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO-8. Geneva: International Labour Office; 2012. p. 12-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Otemuyiwa IO, Adewusi SR. Food choice and meal consumption pattern among undergraduate students in two universities in Southwestern Nigeria. Nutr Health 2012;21:233-45.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Sun J, Yi H, Liu Z, Wu Y, Bian J, Wu Y, et al. Factors associated with skipping breakfast among inner Mongolia medical students in China. BMC Public Health 2013;13:42.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Thompson AM, Chad KE. The relationship of social physique anxiety to risk for developing an eating disorder in young females. J Adolesc Health 2002;31:183-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Arroyo Izaga M, Rocandio Pablo AM, Ansotegui Alday L, Pascual Apalauza E, Salces Beti I, Rebato Ochoa E, et al. Diet quality, overweight and obesity in university students. Nutr Hosp 2006;21:673-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Kolodinsky J, Harvey-Berino JR, Berlin L, Johnson RK, Reynolds TW. Knowledge of current dietary guidelines and food choice by college students: Better eaters have higher knowledge of dietary guidance. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107:1409-13.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Yahia N, Achkar A, Abdallah A, Rizk S. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students. Nutr J 2008;7:32.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Ajala JA. Understanding Food and Nutrition: Eat for Health! You are What You Eat. Akinwusi, Ibadan: MayBest Publications; 2006. p. 162.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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   Abstract
  Introduction
  Materials and Design
  Results
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  Conclusion
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