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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-10

Incidence of snake bite and utilization of antivenom in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria


1 Department of Pharmacy, Accident and Emergency Centre, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
2 Department of Clinical, Accident and Emergency Centre, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Sylvester Erhunmwonsere Aghahowa
Department of Pharmacy, Accident and Emergency Centre, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Ugbowo, Benin-City
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_27_15

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Background: Bite resulting from animals seems to be a neglected disease. Since there were cases reported as emergency our institution, there is need to assess the incidence and drug utilization. Objective: To assess the incidence of snake bite and utilization of antivenom over 12 years in the Accident and Emergency Centre of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Data from medical record of snake bite and antivenom utilization between the year 2000 and 2011 were assessed from the centre after obtaining permission. Results: One hundred and thirty-six vials of polyvalent antivenom were utilized in the management of 129 patients that reported with snake bite. The victims were 103 (79.9%) males and 26 (20.2%) females within range of 2 years to 68 years (median, 34 years). The incidence was significantly higher among young adult males aged between 29 and 36 years. Limbs were the most common sites of bite and farmers were the most vulnerable which constituted larger proportion of 75 (58.14%) of unskilled workers. On arrival at the hospital, 90 (69.8%) of the victims had local tourniquet applied above the bitten sites. Their only description of snake was in color and size. Thirty-four patients visited herbalist before reporting to hospital. Oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin) and diclofenac were the most frequently used antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Maximum duration of hospitalization was (102 ± 0.61 h). No death was recorded following snake envenomation and no adverse drug reaction during therapy. Conclusion: Adequate stocking of antivenom is strongly recommended during drug procurement because snake bite complications can be fatal if not promptly treated.


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